Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Concert report Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Concert report - Assignment Example When I walked into the church there were a bunch of chairs directly in front of the stage for the audience, but there were also two rows of chairs on the stage. This was so when the group of performers finished their parts then they could take a rest over there and watch the solo parts of the concert. The audience extremely enjoyed the concert because the Avanti Chamber Singers put on a great show for everyone. This concert was very special for me because it was the first time that I was privileged enough to hear a choir live. Throughout the first half of the program, I would have to say that three songs stood out to me, and all of them were composed by the Brock professor Matthew Therrien. The piece, titled "Requiem," created a warm and sweet image in my mind. The sounds of the violin and piano provided wonderful background music and made me really comfortable. When the female voice came in, I felt like many angels were singing the song at that moment. After the intermission, I would have to say that my most favorite piece was "Swing Low, Sweet Chariot." The reason is that it was one of the very few that I had already heard before that night. This song invoked a range of emotions for me, but I guess I enjoyed the deepness of the voices. It gave me a feeling like I was in church or something because it felt like there was power in the air. Although the song was repetitive in a way, I liked that the choir changed key for each new chorus so that it provided a new sound. The song is very old yet it is still powerful today, and I think that this shows the songs popularity too. This song would have to be my favorite of the night because I could just not resist getting up and clapping in time with the beat. If I had to choose one song for a movie sound track, then it would have to be "Aint Got Time to Die" by Hall Johnson. This song made a real impact on me because it gives hope where there does not seem to be any. I would use in a

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

E-learning as a Tool for Human Resource Management Essay

E-learning as a Tool for Human Resource Management - Essay Example But it really is the HR manager himself, who needs all these knowledge vis--vis his role of retaining all these bright employees and stemming the tide of employee dissatisfaction in the sphere of compensation, job motivation and morale. He must be constantly updated with all the latest techniques. He needs retraining himself in interpersonal and leadership skills and must bone up on actual case studies in order to learn from the failings or success of others and must improve his communication skills and find the possible causes for high turnover rates, if such is presently bedeviling the corporation itself. The heaviest load thrown in his shoulders, however, is the maximisation of employee performance. And this can be done by a sound and efficient organisation that keeps "all programs and initiatives aligned to a framework of increased performance" (Stockley 2005, p.1). Literature Review Many authors of HRM literature point out to e-learning as the panacea to all the above problems . Human resource management, itself is defined as "a set of interdependent personnel policies to maximise 4 objectives: organisational integration, employee commitment, flexibility and quality" (Clark 1993, p.3). E-learning, meanwhile, is defined as "learning facilitated and supported through the use of information and communications technology" (Lingham 2008, p.1). It is also "the "use of the internet or an organizational intranet to conduct training on-line". By intranet, he is referring to a... This essay stresses that HRM must deal with this aspect in conjunction with its traditional roles of recruitment, training, performance appraisal and salary administration. This paper declares that e-learning, meanwhile, is defined as â€Å"learning facilitated and supported through the use of information and communications technology†. It is also â€Å"the â€Å"use of the internet or an organizational intranet to conduct training on-line†. By intranet, he is referring to a â€Å"private organizational network behind firewall software that restricts access to authorised users, including employees participating in learning†. This is more germane to my proposal of the setting up of e-learning in banks and making it an effective tool for HRM. Today’s literature is replete with enthusiasm about this modern literacy that is permeating practically all facets of society. It is called a â€Å"technological revolution that is bringing democratic changes to our society† and describes how the US Education Department and independent research institutes and universities consider the urgency of the implementation to maximise the u se of e-learning in their organisations. E-learning since the last decades has already gained foothold in homes and thus virtually everybody is acquainted with it as people communicate with friends or loved ones through the internet or by e-mail. So it is not beyond comprehension that this could have myriads of uses and could be useful as tool for human resource management, specifically in banks.

Monday, January 27, 2020

History And Fundamental Concept Of Acoustic Music Essay

History And Fundamental Concept Of Acoustic Music Essay Acoustics is the study of the physical characteristics of sounds. Its deal with things like the frequency, amplitude and complexity of sound waves and how sound waves interact with various environments. It can also be refer casually and generally to the over-all quality of sound in a given place. Someone might say in a non-technical conversation: I like to perform at Smith Hall; the acoustics are very brights.   From the everyday sounds of speech, the hum of appliances, to the sounds caused by wind and water, we are immersed in an ocean of sounds. Yet, what is sound, and how do we hear it? Why do two instruments playing the same note sound different? In this lab you will learn the basics of the answers to these questions. To answer the later question, we will analyze sound as an audio engineer would, through a technique called harmonic analysis. Harmonic analysis allows sound to be understood from a quantitative perspective. Also, we will come to an understanding of why the way a computer analyses sound is similar to how our ears analyse sound. I will start this genre presentation by introducing the genre acoustic music. It isnt really a genre, as music played with acoustic instruments can sound very different, but I chose to call the post this, as acoustic music have many similarities. If you like these songs, you should really check out  Bedtime Tunes, which is a site only with songs like these. So without further ado, here are 11 songs with acoustic guitars, pianos, strings and beautiful voices: First here is Antony Hearty with his band  Antony and the Johnsons. Antony Hegarty is a very special person, he is transgendrous, and his voice is absolutely amazing. Unfortunately I havent seen him live, but Ive heard that almost all of the audience comes out from the concert crying Or Acoustics (from Greek pronounced acoustics meaning of or for hearing, ready to hear) is the science that studies sound, in particular its production, transmission, and effects. Sound can often be considered as something pleasant; an example of this would be music. In that case a main application is room acoustics, since the purpose of room acoustical design and optimisation is to make a room sound as good as possible. But some noises can also be unpleasant and make people feel uncomfortable. In fact noise reduction is a major challenge, particularly within the transportation industry as people are becoming more and more demanding. Furthermore ultrasounds also have applications in detection, such as sonar systems or non-destructive material testing. 2. History of acoustic If he first mentioned the Acoustique Art in his  Advancement of Learning  (1605), Francis Bacon (1561-1626) was drawing a distinction between the physical acoustics he expanded in the  Sylva Sylva rum  (1627) and the harmonics of the Pythagorean mathematical tradition. The Pythagorean tradition still survived in Bacons time in the works of such diverse people as Gioseffo Zarlino (1517-1590), Renà © Descartes (1596-1650), and Johannes Kepler (1571-1630). In Bacons words: The nature of sounds, in some sort, [hath  been with some  diligence  inquired,] as far as concerneth music. But the nature of sounds in general hath been superficially observed. It is one of the subtlest pieces of nature. Bacons Acoustique Art was therefore concerned with the study of immusical sounds and with experiments in the migration in sounds so that the harnessing of sounds in buildings (architectural acoustics) by their enclosure in artificial channels inside the walls or in the environment (hydraulic acoustics). Aim of Baconian acoustics was to catalog,  quantify, and shape human space by means of sound. This stemmed from the  echometria,  an early modern tradition of literature on echo, as studied by the mathematicians Giuseppe Biancani (1566-1624), Marin Mersenne (1588-1648), and Daniello Bartoli (1608-1685), in which the model of optics was applied in acoustics to the behaviour of sound. It was in a sense a historical  antecedent  to Isaac Newtons (1642-1727) analogy between colours and musical tones in  Upticks  (1704). Athanasius Kirchers (1601-1680)  Phonurgia Nova  of 1673 was the outcome of this tradition. Attacking British acoustics traditions, Kirsches argued that the origin of the Acoustical Art lay in his own earlier experiments with sounding tubes at the Collegio Romano in 1649 and sketched the ideology of a Christian baroque science of acoustics designed to dominate the world by exploiting the boundless  powers of sound 17th-century empirical observations and mathematical explanations of the simultaneous vibrations of a string at different frequencies were important in the development of modern experimental acoustics. The earliest contribution in this branch of acoustics was made by Mersenne, who derived the mathematical law governing the physics of a vibrating string. Around 1673 Christian Huygens (1629-1695) estimated its absolute frequency, and in 1677 John Wallis (1616-1703) published a report of experiments on the overtones of a vibrating string. In 1692 Francis Roberts (1650-1718) followed with similar findings. These achievements paved the way for the 18th-century  acoustique  of Joseph Sauveur (1653-1716) and for the work of Brook Taylor (1685-1731), Leonhard Euler (1707-1783), Jean Le Rond d Alembert  (1717-1783), Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782), and Giordani Riccati (1709-1790), who all attempted to determine mathematically the fundamental tone and the overtones of a  sonorous  body. Modern experimental acoustics sought in nature, a physical law of the sounding body, the perfect harmony that in the Pythagorean tradition sprang from the mind of the geometrizing God. Experimental epistemology in acoustics also influenced the studies of the anatomy and physiology of hearing, especially the work of Joseph-Guichard Duverney (1648-1730) and Antonio Maria Valsalva (1666-1723), that in the 19th century gave rise to physiological and psychological acoustics. 3. Fundamental concepts of acoustics The study of acoustics revolves around the generation, propagation and reception of mechanical waves and vibrations. The steps shown in the above diagram can be found in any acoustical event or process. There are many kinds of cause, both natural and volitional. There are many kinds of transduction process that convert energy from some other form into acoustic energy, producing the acoustic wave. There is one fundamental equation that describes acoustic wave propagation, but the phenomena that emerge from it are varied and often complex. The wave carries energy throughout the propagating medium. Eventually this energy is transduced again into other forms, in ways that again may be natural and/or volitionally contrived. The final effect may be purely physical or it may reach far into the biological or volitional domains. The five basic steps are found equally well whether we are talking about an earthquake, a submarine using sonar to locate its foe, or a band playing in a rock concert. The central stage in the acoustical process is wave propagation. This falls within the domain of physical acoustics. In  fluids, sound propagates primarily as a pressure wave. In solids, mechanical waves can take many forms including  longitudinal waves,  transverse HYPERLINK  and  surface waves. Acoustics looks first at the pressure levels and frequencies in the sound wave. Transduction processes are also of special importance. 4. Application of Acoustics The science of sound and hearing. This treats the sonic qualities of rooms and buildings, and the transmission of sound by the voice, musical instruments or electric means. Voice is caused by vibration, which is communicated by the sound source to the air as fluctuations in pressure and then to the listeners ear-drum. The faster the vibration (or the greater its frequency) the higher the pitch. The greater the amplitude of the vibration, the louder the sound. Mostly musical sound consist not only of regular vibration at one particular frequency but also vibration at various multiples of that frequency. The frequency of middle C is 256 cycles per second (or Hertz, abbreviated Hz) but when one hears middle C there are components of the sound vibrating at 512 Hz, 768 Hz etc (see  Harmonics). The presence and relative strength of these harmonics determine the quality of a sound. The difference in quality, for example. between a flute, an oboe and a clarinet playing the same note is tha t the flutes tone is relatively pure (i.e. has few and weak harmonics), the oboe is rich in higher harmonics and the clarinet has a preponderance of odd-numbered harmonics. Their different harmonic spectra are caused primarily by the way the sound vibration is actuated (by the blowing of air across an edge with the flute, by the oboes double reed and the clarinets single reed) and by the shape of the tube. Where the players lips are the vibrating agent, as with most brass instruments, the tube can be made to sound not its fundamental note but other harmonics by means of the players lip pressure. The vibrating air column is only one of the standard ways of creating musical sound. The longer the column the lower the pitch; the players can raise the pitch by uncovering hole in the tubes. With that human voice, air is set in motion by means of the vocal cords, folds in the throat which convert the air stream from the lungs into sound; pitch is controlled by the size and shape of the cavities in the pharynx and mouth. For a string instrument, such as the violin, the guitar or the piano, the string is set in vibration by (respectively) bowing, plucking or striking; the tighter and thinner the string, the fasters it will vibrate. By pressing the string against the fingerboard and thus making the operative string-length shorter, the player can raise the pitch. With a percussion instrument, such as the drum or the xylophone, a membrane or a piece of wood is set in vibration by striking; sometimes the vibration is regular and gives a definite pitch but sometimes the pitch is indefinit e. In the recording of sound, the vibration patterns set up by the instrument or instruments to be recorded are encode by analogue (or, in recent recordings. digitally) in terms of electrical impulse. This information can then be stored, in mechanical or electrical form; this can then be decoded, amplified and conveyed to loudspeakers which transmit the same vibration pattern to the airs. The study of the acoustics of buildings is immensely complicated because of the variety of ways in which sound is conveyed, reflected, diffused, absorbed etc. The design of buildings for performances has to take account of such matters as the smooth and even representation of sound at all pitches in all parts of the building, the balance of clarity and blend and the directions in which reflected sound may impinge upon the audiences. The use of particular material (especially wood and artificial acoustical substances) and the breaking-up of surfaces, to avoid certain types of reflection of sounds, play a part in the design of concert halls, which however remains an uncertain art in which experimentation and tuning (by shifting surface, by adding resonators etc.) is often necessary. The term acoustic is sometimes used, of a recording or an instrument, to mean not electric: an acoustic recording is one made before electric methods came into use, and an acoustic guitar is one not electri cally amplified. 4.1 Theory of acoustic The area of physics known as acoustics is devoted to the study of the production, transmission, and reception of sound. Thus, wherever sound is produced and transmitted, it will have an effect some whereas, even if there is no one present to hear it. The medium of sound transmissions is an all-important, key factor. Among the areas addressed within the realm of acoustics are the production of sounds by the human sounds and various instrument, as like the reception of sound waves by the human ear. 5. Working concept of acoustic Sound waves are an example of a larger phenomenon known as wave motion, and wave motion is, in turn, a subset of harmonic motion-that is, repeated movement of a particle about a position of equilibrium, or balance. In the case of sound, the particle is not an item of matter, but of energy, and wave motion is a type of harmonic movement that carries energy from one place to another without actually moving any matter. Particles in waves experience  oscillation, harmonic motion in one or more dimensions. Oscillation itself involves little movement, though some particles do move short distances as they interact with other particles. Primarily, however, it involves only movement in place. The waves themselves, on the other hand, move across space, ending up in a position different from the one in which they started. A  transverse  wave forms a regular up-and-down pattern in which the oscillation is  perpendicular  to the direction the wave is moving. This is a fairly easy type of wave to visualize: imagine a curve moving up and down along a straight line. Sound waves, on the other hand, are  longitudinal  waves, in which oscillation occurs in the same direction as the wave itself. These oscillations are really just fluctuations in pressure. As a sound wave moves through a medium such as air, these changes in pressure cause the medium to experience alternations of density and rarefaction  (a decrease in density). It , in turn, produces vibrations in the human ear or in any other object that receives the sound waves. 5.1 Properties of Sound Waves 5.1.1 Cycle and Period The term cycle has a definition that varies slightly, depending on whether the type of motion being discussed is oscillation, the movement of transverse waves, or the motion of a longitudinal sound wave. In the latter case, a cycle is defined as a single complete  vibration. A period (represented by the symbol  T) is the amount of time required to complete one full cycle. The period of a sound wave can be mathematically related to several other aspects of wave motion, including wave speed, frequency, and  wavelength. 5.1.2 The Speed of Sound in Various Medium People often refer to the speed of sound as though this were a fixed value like the speed of light, but, in fact, the speed of sound is a function of the medium through which it travels. What people ordinarily  mean by the speed of sound is the speed of sound through air at a specific temperature. For sound travelling at sea level, the speed at 32 °F (0 °C) is 740 MPH (331 m/s), and at 68 °F (20 °C), it is 767 MPH (343 m/s). In the essay on  aerodynamics, the speed of sound for aircraft was given at 660 MPH (451 m/s). This is much less than the figures given above for the speed of sound through air at sea level, because obviously, aircraft are not flying at sea level, but well above it, and the air through which they pass is well below freezing temperature. The speed of sound through a gas is proportional to the square root of the pressure divided by the density. According to Gay-Lussacs law, pressure is directly related to temperature, meaning that the lower the pressure, the lower the temperature-and vice versa. At high altitudes, the temperature is low, and, therefore, so is the pressure; and, due to the relatively small gravitational pull that Earth exerts on the air at that height, the density is also low. Hence, the speed of sound is also low. It follows that the higher the pressure of the material, and the greater the density, the faster sound travels through it: thus sound travels faster through a liquid than through a gas. This might seem a bit surprising: at first  glance, it would seem that sound travels fastest through air, but only because we are just more  accustomed  to hearing sounds that travel through that medium. The speed of sound in water varies from about 3,244 MPH (1,450 m/s) to about 3,355 MPH (1500 m/s). Sound travels even faster through a solid-typically about 11,185 MPH (5,000 m/s)-than it does through a liquid. 5.1.3 Frequency Frequency (abbreviated  f) is the number of waves passing through a given point during the interval of one second. It is measured in Hertz (Hz), named after nineteenth-century German physicist Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (1857-1894) and a Hertz is equal to one cycle of oscillation per second. Higher frequencies are expressed in terms of  kilohertz  (kHz; 103  or 1,000 cycles per second) or  megahertz(MHz; 106  or 1 million cycles per second.) The human ear is capable of hearing sounds from 20 to approximately 20,000 Hz-a relatively small range for a mammal, considering that bats, whales, and dolphins can hear sounds at a frequency up to 150  kHz. Human speech is in the range of about 1 kHz, and the 88 keys on a piano vary in frequency from 27 Hz to 4,186 Hz. Each note has its own frequency, with middle C (the white key in the very middle of a piano keyboard) at 264 Hz. The quality of harmony or  dissonance  when two notes are played together is a function of the relationship between the frequencies of the two. Frequencies below the range of human  audibility  are called  infrasound, and those above it are referred to as  ultrasound. There are a number of practical applications for  ultrasonic  technology in medicine, navigation, and other fields. 5.1.4 Wavelength Wavelength (represented by the symbol ÃŽÂ », the Greek letter lambda) is the distance between a crest and the adjacent crest, or a trough and an adjacent trough, of a wave. The higher the frequency, the shorter the wavelength, and vice versa. Thus, a frequency of 20 Hz, at the bottom end of human audibility, has a very large wavelength: 56 ft. (17 m). The top end frequency of 20,000 Hz is only 0.67 inches (17 mm). There is a special type of high-frequency sound wave beyond ultrasound: hyper sound, which has frequencies above 107  MHz, or 10 trillion Hz. It is almost impossible for hyper sound waves to travel through all but the densest media, because their wavelengths are so short. In order to be transmitted properly, hyper sound requires an extremely tight molecular structure; otherwise, the wave would get lost between molecules. Wavelengths of visible light, part of the electromagnetic spectrum, have a frequency much higher even than hyper sounds waves: about 109  MHz, 100 times greater than for hyper sound. This, in turn, means that these wavelengths are incredibly small, and this is why light waves can easily be blocked out by using ones hand or a  curtain. The same does not hold for sound waves, because the wavelengths of sounds in the range of human audibility are comparable to the size of ordinary objects. To block out a sound wave, one needs something of much greater dimensions-width, height, and depth-than a mere cloth curtain. A thick concrete wall, for instance, may be enough to block out the waves. Better still would be the use of materials that absorb sound, such as cork, or even the use of machines that produce sound waves which destructively interfere with the offending sounds. 5.1.5 Amplitude and Intensity Amplitude is critical to the understanding of sound, though it is mathematically independent from the parameters so far discussed. Defined as the maximum displacement of a vibrating material, amplitude  is the size of a wave. The greater the amplitude, the greater the energy the wave contains: amplitude indicates intensity, commonly known as volume, which is the rate at which a wave moves energy per unit of a cross-sectional area. Intensity can be measured in watts per square meter, or W/m2. A sound wave of minimum intensity for human audibility would have a value of 10à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬â„¢12, or 0.000000000001, W/m2. As a basis of comparison, a person speaking in an ordinary tone of voice generates about 10à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬â„¢4, or 0.0001, watts. On the other hand, a sound with an intensity of 1 W/m2  would be powerful enough to damage a persons ears. 5.2 Real-Life Applications 5.2.1 Decibel Levels For measuring the intensity of a sound as experienced by the human ear, we use a unit other than the watt per square meter, because ears do not respond to sounds in a linear, or straight-line, progression. If the intensity of a sound is doubled, a person perceives a greater intensity, but nothing approaching twice that of the original sound. Instead, a different system-known in mathematics as a logarithmic scale-is applied. In measuring the effect of sound intensity on the human ear, a unit called the  decibel  (abbreviated dB) is used. A sound of minimal audibility (10à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬â„¢12  W/m2) is assigned the value of 0 dB, and 10 dB is 10 times as great-10à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬â„¢11  W/m2. But 20 dB is not 20 times as intense as 0 dB; it is 100 times as intense, or 10à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬â„¢10  W/m2. Every increase of 10 dB thus indicates a  tenfold  increase in intensity. Therefore, 120 dB, the maximum decibel level that a human ear can endure without experiencing damage, is not 120 times as great as the minimal level for audibility, but 1012  (1  trillion) times as great-equal to 1 W/m2, referred to above as the highest safe intensity level. Of course, sounds can be much louder than 120 dB: a rock band, for instance, can generate sounds of 125 dB, which is 5 times the maximum safe decibel level. A gunshot,  firecracker, or a jet-if one is exposed to these sounds at a sufficiently close proximity-can be as high as 140 dB, or 20 times the maximum safe level. Nor is 120 dB safe for prolonged periods: hearing experts indicate that regular and repeated exposure to even 85 dB (5 less than a lawn  mower) can cause permanent damage to ones hearing. 5.3 Production of Sound Waves 5.3.1 Musical Instruments Sound waves are vibrations; thus, in order to produce sound, vibrations must be produced. For a stringed instrument, such as a guitar,  harp, or piano, the strings must be set into vibration, either by the musicians fingers or the mechanism that connects piano keys to the strings inside the case of the piano. In other woodwind instruments and horns, the musician causes vibrations by blowing into the mouthpiece. The exact process by which the vibrations emerge as sound differs between woodwind instruments, such as a  clarinet  or  saxophone  on the one hand, and brass instruments, such as a trumpet or  trombone  on the other. Then there is a drum or other percussion instrument, which produces vibrations, if not musical notes. 5.3.2 Electronic Amplification Sound is a form of energy: thus, when an automobile or other machine produces sound  incidental  to its operation, this actually represents energy that is lost. Energy itself is conserved, but not all of the energy put into the machine can ever be realized as useful energy; thus, the automobile loses some energy in the form of sound and heat. The fact that sound is energy, however, also means that it can be converted to other forms of energy, and this is precisely what a  microphone  does: it receives sound waves and converts them to electrical energy. These electrical signals are transmitted to an  amplifier, and next to a  loudspeaker, which turns electrical energy back into sound energy-only now, the intensity of the sound is much greater. Inside a loudspeaker is a  diaphragm, a thin, flexible disk that vibrates with the intensity of the sound it produces. When it pushes outward, the diaphragm forces nearby air molecules closer together, creating a high-pressure region around the loudspeaker. (Remember, as stated earlier, that sound is a matter of fluctuations in pressure.) The diaphragm is then pushed backward in response, freeing up an area of space for the air molecules. These, then, rush toward the diaphragm, creating a low-pressure region behind the high-pressure one. The loudspeaker thus sends out alternating waves of high and low pressure, vibrations on the same frequency of the original sound. 5.3.3 The Human Voice As impressive as the electronic means of sound production are (and of course the description just given is highly simplified), this technology pales in comparison to the greatest of all sound-producing mechanisms: the human voice. Speech itself is a highly complex physical process, much too involved to be discussed in any depth here. For our present purpose, it is important only to recognize that speech is essentially a matter of producing vibrations on the vocal cords, and then transmitting those vibrations. Before a person speaks, the brain sends signals to the vocal cords, causing them to  tighten. As speech begins, air is forced across the vocal cords, and this produces vibrations. The action of the vocal cords in producing these vibrations is, like everything about the miracle of speech,  exceedingly involved: at any given moment as a person is talking, parts of the vocal cords are opened, and parts are closed. The sound of a persons voice is affected by a number of factors: the size and shape of the sinuses and other cavities in the head, the shape of the mouth, and the placement of the teeth and tongue. These factors influence the production of specific frequencies of sound, and result in differing vocal qualities. Again, the mechanisms of speech are highly complicated, involving action of the diaphragm (a partition of muscle and tissue between the chest and  abdominal  cavities),  larynx, pharynx,  glottis, hard and soft palates, and so on. But, it all begins with the production of vibrations. 6. Propagation: Does It Make a Sound As stated in the introduction, acoustics is concerned with the production, transmission (sometimes called propagation), and reception of sound. Transmission has already been examined in terms of the speed at which sound travels through various media. One aspect of sound transmission needs to be reiterated, however: for sound to be propagated, there must be a medium. There is an age-old philosophical question that goes something like this: If a tree falls in the woods and there is no one to hear it, does it make a sound? In fact, the question is not a matter of philosophy at all, but of physics, and the answer is, of course, yes. As the tree falls, it releases energy in a number of forms, and part of this energy is manifested as sound waves. Consider, on the other hand, this rephrased version of the question: If a tree falls in a vacuum-an area completely  devoid  of matter, including air-does it make a sound? The answer is now a qualified no: certainly, there is a release of energy, as before, but the sound waves cannot be transmitted. Without air or any other matter to carry the waves, there is literally no sound. Hence, there is a great deal of truth to the tagline associated with the 1979 science-fiction film  Alien  : In space, no one can hear you scream. Inside an astronauts suit, there is pressure and an oxygen supply; without either, the astronaut would  perish  quickly. The pressure and air inside the suit also allow the astronaut to hear sounds within the suit, including communications via microphone from other astronauts. But, if there were an explosion in the vacuum of deep space outside the spacecraft, no one inside would be able to hear it. 7. Reception of Sound 7.1 Recording Earlier the structure of electronic  amplification  was described in very simple terms. Some of the same processes-specifically, the conversion of sound to electrical energy-are used in the recording of sound. In sound recording, when a sound wave is emitted, it causes vibrations in a diaphragm attached to an electrical  condenser. This causes variations in the electrical current passed on by the condenser. These electrical pulses are processed and ultimately passed on to an electromagnetic recording head. The magnetic field of the recording head extends over the section of tape being recorded: what began as loud sounds now produce strong magnetic fields, and soft sounds produce weak fields. Yet, just as electronic means of sound production and transmission are still not as impressive as the mechanisms of the human voice, so electronic sound reception and recording technology is a less magnificent device than the human ear. 8. How the Ear Hears As almost everyone has noticed, a change in altitude (and, hence, of atmospheric pressure) leads to a strange popping sensation in the ears. Usually, this condition can be overcome by swallowing, or even better, by  yawning. This opens the  Eustachian tube, a  passageway  that maintains atmospheric pressure in the ear. Useful as it is, the Eustachian tube is just one of the human ears many parts. The funny shape of the ear helps it to capture and  amplify  sound waves, which  pass-through  the ear canal and cause the  eardrum  to vibrate. Though humans can hear sounds over a much wider range, the optimal range of audibility is from 3,000 to 4,000 Hz. This is because the structure of the ear canal is such that sounds in this frequency produce  magnified  pressure fluctuations. Thanks to this, as well as other specific properties, the ear acts as an amplifier of sounds. Beyond the eardrum is the middle ear, an  intricate  sound-reception device containing some of the smallest bones in the human body-bones commonly known, because of their shapes, as the hammer, anvil, and stirrup. Vibrations pass from the hammer to the anvil to the stirrup, through the membrane that covers the oval window, and into the inner ear. Filled with liquid, the inner ear contains the semi-circular canals responsible for providing a sense of balance or orientation: without these, a person literally would not know which way is up. Also, in the inner ear is the  cochlea, an organ shaped like a  snail. Waves of pressure from the fluids of the inner ear are passed through the cochlea to the  auditory  nerve, which then transmits these signals to the brain. The basilar membrane of the cochlea is a particularly  wondrous  instrument, responsible in large part for the ability to discriminate between sounds of different frequencies and intensities. The surface of the membrane is covered with thousands of fibres, which are highly sensitive to disturbances, and it transmits information concerning these disturbances to the auditory nerve. The brain, in turn, forms a relation between the position of the nerve ending and the frequency of the sound. It also equates the degree of disturbance in the  basilar membrane  with the intensity of the sound: the greater the disturbance, the louder the sounds.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Love Song of J.Alfrrd Prufrock Notes

The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock â€Å"A reader’s response to a text is influenced by that responder’s social, cultural and historical context† Choosing one of T. S Eliot’s poems set for study, consider to what extent your personal response to your chosen poem has been shaped by the enduring power of its intellectual and artistic qualities. (Quote) â€Å"There will be time, there will be time To prepare a face to meet the faces that you meet;† Good morning /Afternoon Ms and fellow classmates. A reader’s personal response to a text is shaped by the enduring power of its intellectual and artistic qualities.Their response is influenced by that responder’s social, cultural and historical context which is why texts including ‘The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock’ can be interpreted in various ways by various people. ‘The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock‘, was composed by poet T. S Eliot. Born in St Louis Missouri U SA, he attended Harvard University in 1906 and was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1948. ‘The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock’ was the earliest of T. S Eliot’s major works and was completed between 1910 and 1911.It is an examination of the tortured mind of the prototypical modern man – eloquent, neurotic and emotionally stilted. The ideas and themes explored and their relevance to us today: In ‘The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock’ there are various themes, symbols and ideas explored. The damaged mind of humanity and the changing nature of gender roles are two of the main themes explored in the poem. Like many modernist writers, Eliot wanted to capture the transformed world which he perceived as fractured and denigrated and also wanted his poetry to express the fragile psychological state of humanity in the twentieth century.In the poem ‘The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock’ Prufrock, the poems persona, is constantly quest ioning the romantic ideal of society; wondering whether he should make a radical change, or if he has the fortitude to continue living demonstrating a sense of indecisive paralysis in the persona. This is seen when Prufrock, unable to make decisions, watches women wander in and out of a room, â€Å"talking of Michelangelo. † Humanity’s collectively damaged psyche prevented people from communicating with one another, an idea that is clearly evident in Eliot’s poem.This also reflects the theme of the changing nature of gender roles, over the course of Eliot’s life, gender roles and sexuality became increasingly flexible, and Eliot reflected those changes in his work, including ‘The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock’. Prufrock is unable to talk to women and fears rejection, this conveys the feeling of emasculation experienced by many men as they returned home from World War 1, which was during Eliot’s time, to find women empowered by their new role as wage earners. These themes evident throughout ‘The Love Song of J.Alfred Prufrock’ are relevant in today’s contemporary society. Women constantly faced oppression which was seen as conventional in society in the twentieth century, men were the bread winners while women left school early to stay at home and raise children. Throughout history, especially in Eliot’s time, society transformed and women fought back against this inequality, discrimination and injustice in all its forms which led to The Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopting the convention of the equal rights of men and women.This period of revolution is why today, in most parts of the world, women’s rights and freedoms are supported by law and they are no longer ignored or suppressed. The unusual independence from men shown in the women in ‘The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock’ is what cause a shift in society and history and is also why today women have th e right to vote, attend school, earn the same wage as men, and even lead a nation. Your response to the poem as compared to Eliot’s time: My own personal response to ‘The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock’ was, at first, complete confusion as I was unable to understand what it was that Eliot was trying to convey.I soon realised that Prufrock, the poems persona, was psyche Your time and place, reflecting upon the ways in which context has shaped your response to the text: Prufrock, the poems persona, seems to be addressing a potential lover, with whom he would like to â€Å"force the moment to its crisis† by consummating their relationship. But Prufrock knows too much of life to â€Å"dare† and approach the woman: in his mind he hears the comments others make about his inadequacies. The poem moves from a series of fairly concrete physical settings – a cityscape with several interiors- to a series of vague ocean images onveying Prufrock emotional distance from the world as he comes to recognise his second-rate status. â€Å"Prufrock† is powerful for its range of intellectual reference and also vividness of character achieved. The modernist movement and the new perception of the world at the time along with the desire to create something new was one of the main influences in Eliot’s work. Modernist texts emerged in the early 20th century and were influenced by developments in psychoanalysis and anthropology , by social reforms and by the growing industrialisation and mechanisation of society.Modernist texts such as Eliot’s are more interested in representing the inner life of characters. For modernists the process of artistic creation exposed the alienation and displacement that individuals often experience in modern, industrial society. Other influences on Eliot’s work were the changes in religion, evident in Journey of the Magi, his questioning of traditional political paradigms and the way soci ety worked and how it was structured. It is evident that there is use of dramatic monologue throughout Eliot’s piece which helps to express a condition of instability.The epigraph to this poem is from Dante’s Inferno and describes Prufrock’s ideal listener; one who is as lost as the speaker and will not betray to the world the content of Prufrock’s present confessions. In the world Prufrock describes, though, no such sympathetic figure exists, and he must, therefore, be content with silent reflection. Using fictional personalities such as J. Alfred Prufrock to express a state of inner turmoil or a multiplicity of selves contained within one person. J.Alfred Prufrock is not just the speaker of one of Eliot’s poems, he is the representative man of early modernism. Shy, cultivated and oversensitive, the speakers of his poems are trapped inside their own excessive alertiveness. The general fragmentation of the poem is obvious and notorious. The poem se ems a perfect example of what Terry Eagleton calls â€Å"the modern transition from metaphor to metonym ; unable any longer to totalise his experience in some heroic figure, the bourgeois is forced to let trickle away into objects related to him by sheer contiguity. Eliot was interested in the divide between high and low culture â€Å"The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock† is, as the title, implies a song, with various lines repeated as refrains. That poem ends with the song of mermaids luring humans to their deaths by drowning—a scene that echoes Odysseus’s interactions with the Sirens in the Odyssey. Music thus becomes another way in which Eliot collages and references books from past literary traditions. Eliot chooses to make Prufrock an unacknowledged poet

Friday, January 10, 2020

Life of pi personal essay

In Yawn Marten's Life of Pi, Piecing Molotov Patella's Journey explores many connections to my life. His life in India, along with his experience on water, allows Pi to recognize many attributes about himself. My life in three specific ways, mirrors the life of Pl. This is proven through hope, loss, and religion involved in both of our lives. Pip's ‘cup half full' outlook, along with his â€Å"fierce will to live†(Marten, 164) is what gives him hope throughout his Journey on water. This is seen when Pi absorbs that there is a tiger in his life boat and that they are stranded in the middle of the ocean.This makes him realize oncoming death, however he fails to accept it due to the voice he hears in his heart; â€Å"l will not die. I refuse it. I will not make it through this nightmare. I will beat the odds, as great as they are. I have survived so far, miraculously. Now I will turn miracle into routine (163). † This spark of light found in his heart in such a hopel ess situation, proves his amazing outlook on life and will to survive. Similarly, I try to view every situation in a positive light as well, no matter how hopeless the situation may be.This is usually seen when I may be in a bad situation with others, and instead of complaining, I will make the remark â€Å"Well, it could be worse. For instance†¦ † This attitude tends to create more positivist in everyone and every situation. In addition, Pip's loss of loved ones also connects to myself. When he can no longer deny the death of his Father, Mother and brother Rave, he grieves; â€Å"what a thing to acknowledge in your heart (141)! † This represents the love that he will forever cherish of his family. Loss is something that everyone lives with.In the case of God's Theodosius, people presume that evil, including loss, is existent due to possible reasons: to build character, to develop free will, pure revenge, etc. In the case of P', I believe that his loss establishes building of character, and in connection to my first point, creates motivation which brings him hope. The loss of my family members, including all four of my grandparents, has been bitter sweet. Of course, death is a tragedy in the case of loved ones, however, believing that they are looking down on e has given me hope and motivation, like P', to strive for success and make them proud.The major factor that Pi develops throughout the novel is the discovery of his identity. His religion(s), family, and self, all contribute to the way that he showcases himself when he is independent on the ocean. In his search for religion, Pi is not limited by the bounds of a single religion, but instead seeks guidance and meaning from many. His choices of following the religions of Buddhism, Hinduism, and Christianity are all able to contribute to his strong love for God/Allah.It is Pip's dignity and belief for God that he cares about; â€Å"To me, religion is about our dignity, not our depravity'( 79). Like Papua Gandhi, I agree that ‘All religions are true† (76) and that there are no rules for loving God as religion is an independent choice. After all, the point of spirituality is not to becoming limited by narrow thinking, but to find yourself in order to enhance your lives, and the lives of those around you. Unlike P', I was raised practicing the single religion of Judaism in my household.My mother (who inverted) along with my father, exposed me to the practices and beliefs of Judaism, which I still practice and abide by today. This goes along with my Bat Mitzvahs at the age of thirteen which identified me as a woman. My belief in God, like Pi, is strong, and thanks to religion, is a major part of my identity. When examined closer, Pip's hope in all situations, loss of loved ones, and identity which is seen through his religion, are all able to connect closely with myself. Works Cited Marten, Yawn. Life of Pi: a novel. New York: Harcourt, 2001. Print.

Thursday, January 2, 2020

Books and Blogs About Cultural Appropriation

Cultural appropriation is a complicated topic. Although the issue often appears in news headlines when clothing chains such as Urban Outfitters or singers such as Miley Cyrus and Katy Perry face accusations of cultural appropriation, the concept remains difficult for many people to grasp. The most simple definition of cultural appropriation is that it occurs when members of a dominant culture borrow from the cultures of minority groups without their input. Typically those doing the â€Å"borrowing,† or exploiting, lack a contextual understanding of what makes the cultural symbols, art forms and modes of expression significant. Despite their ignorance of the ethnic groups from which they borrow, members of the majority culture have frequently profited from cultural exploitation. Given that cultural appropriation is such a multi-layered issue, a number of books have been written about the trend. Members of marginalized groups have also launched websites specifically devoted to educating the public about cultural appropriation. This overview highlights noteworthy literature and websites about this persistent phenomenon. Cultural Appropriation And The Arts This book by James O. Young uses philosophy as the foundation to examine the â€Å"moral and aesthetic issues to which cultural appropriation gives rise.† Young highlights how white musicians such as Bix Beiderbeck to Eric Clapton have gained from appropriating African-American musical styles. Young also addresses the consequences of cultural appropriation and whether the trend is morally objectionable. Moreover, can appropriation lead to artistic successes? With Conrad G. Brunk, Young also edited a book called the Ethics of Cultural Appropriation. In addition to exploring cultural appropriation in the arts, the book focuses on the practice in archaeology, museums and religion. Who Owns Culture? - Appropriation and Authenticity in American Law Fordham University Law Professor Susan Scafidi asks who owns artforms such as rap music, global fashion and geisha culture, to name a few. Scafidi points out that members of culturally exploited groups typically have little legal recourse when others use their traditional dress, music forms and other practices as inspiration. The book is billed as the first to investigate why the United States offers legal protections for works of literature but not for folklore. Scafidi asks larger questions as well. Specifically, what does cultural appropriation reveal about American culture overall. Is it as innovative as widely thought or the byproduct of â€Å"cultural kleptomania?† Borrowed Power: Essays on Cultural Appropriation This collection of essays edited by Bruce Ziff focuses specifically on Western appropriation of Native American cultures. The book explores the artifacts, symbols and concepts typically targeted for appropriation. A range of people contributed to the book, including Joane Cardinal-Schubert, Lenore Keeshig-Tobias, J. Jorge Klor de Alva, Hartman H. Lomawaima and Lynn S. Teague. Native Appropriations This long-running blog examines representations of Native Americans in popular culture through a critical lens. Adrienne Keene, who is of Cherokee descent, runs the blog. She is pursuing a doctorate in Harvard University’s Graduate School of Education and uses the Native Appropriations blog to examine images of Native Americans in film, fashion, sports and more. Keene also offers tips to the public on combating cultural appropriation of Native peoples and discussing the issue with the person who insists on dressing up as a Native American for Halloween or supporting the use of Native Americans as mascots. Beyond Buckskin The Beyond Buckskin website not only addresses the appropriation of Native American fashion but also features a boutique with jewelry, accessories, clothing and more crafted by Native American designers. â€Å"Inspired by relevant historical and contemporary Native American clothing design and art, Beyond Buckskin promotes cultural appreciation, social relationships, authenticity and creativity,† according to the website. Jessica Metcalfe (Turtle Mountain Chippewa) maintains the website. She has a doctorate in American Indian Studies from the University of Arizona.

Wednesday, December 25, 2019

Opposing Gun Control with the Right to Bear Arms - 583 Words

The United States Patriot Militia in 1780 was the day of the battle that was the turning point of the Revolutionary War. These militiamen were normal arms-bearing citizens that gave the forward momentum of our country’s development, and without these citizens that stood up for our country, our life may not be as it is today. The topic of gun control has been controversial for years about how it causes more violence, more murders, homicides, etc. The main thing that is being fought about is whether or not gun regulations should be tightened. It is a big controversy whether or not if the law is made more strict then murders and other violence related to firearms are going to be reduced. tightening gun regulations will affect none of these things. The purpose of the Second Amendment is to give people the right to keep and bear arms which is why this amendment is so important. The Second Amendment states â€Å"A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed† . This is saying that the people have the right to bear arms. People try to point out that it talks about militia and try to say, †well that’s the National Guard†, but it’s not. Every citizen that is able to yield a firearm is considered to be in the reserve militia (LaCourse). Therefore taking the right to bear arms away from citizens is depriving them of the ability to do their duty as a citizen. A large amount of anti-gun rightsShow MoreRelatedGun Control: America Needs Better Background Checks Essay1188 Words   |  5 Pagesaffecting American society. By reinforcing background checks we could reduce crimes and limit easy gun access to mental ly ill people. 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